Therefore, they had access to British citizenship if they were to migrate to the UK, without having to relinquish their original citizenship Voici, Restrictions have since refined the British Nationality Act , yet dual citizenship is still allowed Tolley, Early in the s and the s, the Art Council of Britain as well as the Ethnic Minority Grant Program have concentrated a significant amount of their respective budgets for programs aimed at the funding and realization of sociocultural activities that would promote and valorise ethnic and racial communities in the UK Tolley, As for the first decade of the 21st century, the Commission for Racial Equality has provided funds for activities with such objectives Commission for Racial Equality, : 71— That said, when the Commission for Racial Equality merged with the Equality and Human Rights Commission in , no more funds were planned in the budget for that matter Equality and Human Rights Commission, Another, yet permanent public program which provides state funding in the form of core- or project-based support, was set up in with the Awards for All program within the Big Lottery Fund Big Lottery Fund, a.
That said, the UK school system has changed since the arrival, in , of the Conservative—Liberal Democrat coalition led by David Cameron. In particular, to its Free Schools the state has integrated bilingual ones. Free Schools are state funded but do not answer to Local Education Authorities. Therefore, they tend to be more autonomous and, as a consequence, hold significant freedom on the pedagogical approach privileged for applying the curriculum. Those state-funded bilingual schools are available in a few cities, although they are not offered as a general rule.
As already repeatedly stated, since the amendment to the RRAs, the UK formally prohibits direct and indirect discrimination on racial, ethnic and religious grounds, thereby making it a country which has an affirmative action policy targeted for immigrant minorities. After the UK general election multiculturalism has demonstrated an upsurge in political debates as the New Labour was putting the emphasis on the multicultural reality of the British society during the campaign.
At the very least, this scenario seems probable. Do we observe, between and , a retreat or at least a substantial revision on the matter of immigrant multicultural policy in Great Britain? In particular, is post — i. Table 1. That said, what is of significance for the present argument is that the score on every indicator of the MPI is relatively stable over time, and that it has been slightly consolidated while David Cameron was governing the country between and In fact, indicators 1, 3 to 6, and 8 are either stable or have been consolidated with new laws, public programs, or regulations.
As for the second indicator concerning the presence of multiculturalism within the school curriculum, one observes that multiculturalism or multicultural education is no longer part of official programs, yet its pedagogical content is still marked by a multicultural flavour — I will come back to this issue. Finally, the seventh indicator concerning bilingual education has met a positive variation since , as the state has integrated a few bilingual schools to its Free ones.
To be fair, though, Joppke argues that the UK has moved from multiculturalism as it has adopted civic-oriented integration policies. Foremost, one could interpret that the eight indicators of the MPI are simply not representative of multicultural policy. Put differently, the first interpretation would question the validity of the MPI for the study of multicultural policy. As a matter of fact, the MPI cannot reach perfect validity as it is designed to compare several countries with significant differences on the matter of multicultural policy.
Nonetheless, the MPI has been applied to 21 countries, and multiple scholars have reached significant conclusions with it cf. That does not infer, necessarily, the validity of the MPI, yet it gives one considerable justification to reject that first interpretation until proven of the contrary — which has not been done. That said, it is worth stressing that indicators on the MPI all share the same absolute value i.
Also, whether the UK publicly starts funding bilingual education for the French, Spanish and German communities in England — but not yet? Nonetheless, even without consideration of these two indicators that might be problematic, there is no sign the UK would have retreated from its multicultural policy arrangement. The second plausible interpretation, then, is that Joppke understands the tension between multicultural policy and integration policy as being a zero-sum game. For Joppke is not alone in proposing such an interpretation.
Similar accounts can also be found elsewhere cf. Fomina, : ; Orgad, The UK did implement a few civic integration policies Goodman, ; Squire, Even from a theoretical account that interpretation does not hold up. For example, for multiculturalism theorists Anne Phillips , Bhikhu Parekh , , Charles Taylor , , Seyla Benhabib , Tariq Modood , and Will Kymlicka , , to cite a few, integration is understood as a core principle for a multicultural policy. In particular, Kymlicka holds firmly that language requirements for acquiring citizenship do fit within the principles of a liberal multiculturalism Kymlicka, : This number reached 3.
Uberoi and Modood, Citizenship education programs in the four constituent nations have been revised and developed considerably within the past two decades following devolution from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly of Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and in England Greater London Authority and other combined authorities. Also, as Bloemraad shows, there are significant linkages between the ideas and implications of multiculturalism and citizenship as such.
Therefore, considering citizenship education curriculums in the UK should indicate some trends of what ways of thinking — with regards to, say, multiculturalism, multi-ethnic Britain, Britishness, identity, social cohesion, inclusiveness, etc. Education, as citizenship education more specifically, in Britain is not centralized or homogeneous throughout the country. Since the devolution processes introduced at the end of the s, such legislation has been indeed decentralized to Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England.
Following the reception of the Crick Report the Labour government, which was anxious about the political engagement of young people, elevated citizenship education as a statutory foundation subject within English secondary schools in Andrews and Mycock, : Hence, stressing Scottishness rather than Britishness, citizenship education in Scotland is promoting a national, yet civic conception of citizenship Kiwan, : , putting the emphasis on the rights and responsibilities one has within local, national and global communities Andrews and Mycock, : The Welsh citizenship education program neither is on a statutory footing, for it has been provided since within Personal and Social Education PSE , which nevertheless is part of the basic statutory curriculum in Wales Kisby and Sloam, : In one word, citizenship education stresses both the importance to develop Welsh aspects of culture as it emphasizes the importance of celebrating diversity Jones and Roderick, ; Kisby and Sloam, : Finally, following the devolution process that resulted from the Belfast Good Friday Agreement , citizenship education in Northern Ireland has been introduced to foster mutual understanding, tolerance and respect Kisby and Sloam, : Clearly, an emphasis is put onto celebrating Britishness mostly in England , Scottishness, or Welshness, yet this is systematically balanced by also celebrating diversity and mutual understanding, and promoting inclusiveness.
Indeed, subsections of citizenship education curriculums in the UK — Identities and diversity: Living together in the UK England , Values and Citizenship Scotland , Community Understanding Wales , Diversity and Inclusion Northern Ireland — all promotes civic-oriented identities open to, and changing with diversity.
The Uk Is a Genuinely Multicultural Society Essay - Words | Cram
Hence, facing the evidence presented in this article, one can now reach three conclusions. Second, in accordance with this, one must invalidate the thesis following which multicultural policy and integration policy should be understood through the strict prism of a zero-sum game. Third, while it is obvious that the UK witnessed a retreat from celebrating multiculturalism in the mainstream political discourse, one must conclude that there is no sign whatsoever that such discourse condemning multiculturalism has had any significant impact onto the UK multicultural policy arrangement between and Mouritsen, I then recalled how multiculturalism in the s, after manifesting a positive upsurge with the general election, has been massively condemned and rejected both in the political arena and within the mass public.
As a contribution to the literature on multiculturalism in the UK, this article reveals three conclusions. Third, as discussed in the first section, there is no doubt the UK witnessed a retreat from celebrating multiculturalism in the mainstream political discourse. Indeed, the multicultural policy framework has been relatively stable through time.
Also, rather than functioning as a zero-sum game, multicultural policy and integration policy may coexist and complement each other without being radically opposed. I would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of this Journal, as well as Stephen May and Tariq Modood for their truly instructive comments and suggestions. For more details, see Tolley : 5—6. Dual Citizenship , there is no room for a partial value.
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Article information. Article Information Volume: 18 issue: 1, page s : Article first published online: June 6, ; Issue published: February 1, Email: mathieu. Keywords Multiculturalism , United Kingdom , public policy , David Cameron , Multicultural Policy Index , citizenship education , civic integration , civic thickening. Multicultural policy in the UK. Discussion: The failure of state multiculturalism in the UK? View larger version. Concluding remarks. Declaration of conflicting interests. Notes 1 Nonetheless, local authorities and municipal governments as well as multiple public reports and commissions sure have structured as well the UK multicultural policy.
View Abstract. Article available in:. Vol 18, Issue 1, Nasar Meer and more American Behavioral Scientist. Transatlantic convergence?